Return to Home Help & Resources Dictionary

Dictionary

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

A

AAPC: Average Annual Percent Changes are based on the APCs calculated by the Joinpoint Regression Program. To learn more about computing AAPCs see link.

APC: Annual Percent Change used to measure trend or the change in rate over time

Age-Adjusted Rate: an age-adjusted incidence or mortality rate is a weighted average of the age-specific incidence or mortality rates where the weights are the proportions of persons in the corresponding age groups of a standard million population. Age adjustment minimizes the effect of a difference in age distributions when comparing rates. For State Cancer Profiles, all incidence and mortality rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard million population to facilitate comparison of rates across geographic areas and demographic groups.

Return to Top

B

Body Mass Index (BMI): a measure of body fat based upon height and weight. The index applies to both men and women.

Brain & ONS: ONS stands for Other Nervous System. We combine brain and other nervous system together as one cancer site grouping - Brain and ONS. This includes two groupings: Brain and Cranial Nerves Other Nervous System.

Return to Top

C

Colonoscopy: An examination of the inside of the colon using a thin, lighted tube (called a colonoscope) inserted into the rectum. If abnormal areas are seen, tissue can be removed and examined under a microscope to determine whether disease is present.

Colorectal: Having to do with the colon or the rectum.

Crowding: Households with > 1 person/room: A housing unit is often considered crowded if it has more than one person to a room. (The number of persons per room is calculated for a household by dividing the number of occupants by the number of rooms.)

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Return to Top

D

Death Rate: deaths per year per 100,000 persons

Return to Top

E

Education: Source: U. S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population and Housing, Demographic Profile. Updated every 10 years.
http://factfinder2.census.gov.

Education: Bachelor's Degree: Persons with a Bachelor's Degree or Higher are those who have received a bachelor's degree from a college or university, or a master's, professional, or doctorate degree. Data includes only persons 25 years old and over. The percentages are obtained by dividing the counts of graduates by the total number of persons 25 years old and over.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Education: High School Graduates: High School Graduates include people whose highest degree was a high school diploma or its equivalent, people who attended college or professional school, and persons who received a college, university, or professional degree. Persons who reported completing the 12th grade but not receiving a diploma are not high school graduates. Data includes only persons 25 years old and over. The percentages are obtained by dividing the counts of graduates by the total number of persons 25 years old and over.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Education: Less than 9th Grade: These statistics include people whose highest level of educational attainment was any of the following: nursery school, kindergarten, and elementary school (1st to 8th grades). Data includes only persons 25 years old and over.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Return to Top

F

Family: A group of two or more people who reside together and who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Fecal Occult Blood Test: A screening test for cancers of the colon or rectum that checks for blood in stool. (Fecal refers to stool; occult means hidden.)

Return to Top

H

Healthy People 2010: the prevention agenda for the Nation. It is a statement of national health objectives designed to identify the most significant preventable threats to health and to establish national goals to reduce these threats.

Hispanic: Hispanic data include all people who identify themselves as being of Hispanic origin. Hispanic ethnicity is considered independently of race, so Hispanic persons may be of any race. Incidence data for Hispanics are based on NAACCR Hispanic Identification Algorithm (NHIA). More information can be found at the SEER web site and the NAACCR web site

For state exclusions that are used when producing Hispanic mortality rates, see Policy for Calculating Hispanic Mortality.

Household: A household includes all the people who occupy a housing unit as their usual place of residence.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Return to Top

I

In Situ Cancer: Early cancer that has not spread to neighboring tissue.

Incidence Rate: the number of newly diagnosed cancers per year per 100,000 persons.

Income: 'Total income' is the sum of the amounts reported separately for wages, salary, commissions, bonuses, or tips; self-employment income from own nonfarm or farm businesses, including proprietorships and partnerships; interest, dividends, net rental income, royalty income, or income from estates and trusts; Social Security or Railroad Retirement income; Supplemental Security Income (SSI); any public assistance or welfare payments from the state or local welfare office; retirement, survivor, or disability pensions; and any other sources of income received regularly such as Veterans' (VA) payments, unemployment compensation, child support, or alimony.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Income: Median Family Income: Family income is the sum of money received in the calendar year by all family members residing together, not including non-relatives. Data are limited to the household population and exclude the population living in institutions, college dormitories, and other group quarters. The median income divides the income distribution into two equal groups, one having incomes above the median, and other having incomes below the median.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Income: Median Household Income: Household income is the sum of money income received in the calendar year by all household members 15 years old and over, including household members not related to the householder, people living alone, and other nonfamily household members. Included in the total are amounts reported separately for wage or salary income; net self-employment income; interest, dividends, or net rental or royalty income or income from estates and trusts; Social Security or Railroad Retirement income; Supplemental Security Income (SSI); public assistance or welfare payments; retirement, survivor, or disability pensions; and all other income. The median income divides the income distribution into two equal groups, one having incomes above the median, and other having incomes below the median.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Insurance: Source: US Census Bureau Small Area Health Insurance Estimates
http://www.census.gov/did/www/sahie/

Interval Color: Color on the map that the state or county is represented by as well as other values in that range.

Interval Range: Range of values that the state or county has been grouped with.

Invasive Cancer: Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of tissue in which it developed and is growing into surrounding, healthy tissues. Also called infiltrating cancer. Incidence data on this site is invasive unless otherwise noted as in situ.

Return to Top

J

Joinpoint: statistical software for the analysis of trends using a joinpoint regression model, that is, models describe the trends by a sequence of connected straight line segments.

Return to Top

L

Lifetime Risk: the probability of developing or dying of cancer.

Return to Top

M

Malignant: Cancerous. Malignant tumors can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

Mammography: The use of x-rays to create a picture of the breast.

Mobility: Haven't moved (in last 5 yrs): Persons living in the same house in 1995 and 2000 are those who responded 'Yes, this house' to the question 'Did this person live in this house or apartment five years ago (on April 1, 1995)?' The category includes not only persons who did not move during the five years, but also those who had moved but by Census Day had returned to their 1995 residence.

Census questions also asked for the state (or foreign country), U.S. county, city or town, and ZIP code of residence on April 1, 1995 for those people who reported that on that date they lived in a different house than their current residence. Residence five years earlier is used in conjunction with location of current residence to determine the extent of residential mobility of the population.

Data were tabulated for persons 5 years old and over, and the percentage shown is derived by dividing the number of persons living in the same house by the total number of persons 5 years old and over.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Mobility: Moved from Outside US: Persons who moved from outside the US between 1995 and 2000 are those who responded 'No, outside the United States' to the question 'Did this person live in this house or apartment five years ago (on April 1, 1995)?' Residence five years earlier is used in conjunction with location of current residence to determine the extent of residential mobility of the population.

Data were tabulated for persons 5 years old and over, and the percentage shown is derived by dividing the number of persons living in the same house by the total number of persons 5 years old and over.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Mobility: Moved, Different County this State: Persons who moved from another county between 1995 and 2000 are those who responded 'No, different house in the United States' to the question 'Did this person live in this house or apartment five years ago (on April 1, 1995),' and responded to the question 'Where did this person live 5 years ago? Name of city, town, or post office:' with the same state but different county than the current residence. Residence five years earlier is used in conjunction with location of current residence to determine the extent of residential mobility of the population.

Data were tabulated for persons 5 years old and over, and the percentage shown is derived by dividing the number of persons living in the same house by the total number of persons 5 years old and over.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Mobility: Moved, Different State: Persons who moved from another state withing the US between 1995 and 2000 are those who responded 'No, different house in the United States,' and specified a different State than their current residence to the question 'Did this person live in this house or apartment five years ago (on April 1, 1995)?' Residence five years earlier is used in conjunction with location of current residence to determine the extent of residential mobility of the population.

Data were tabulated for persons 5 years old and over, and the percentage shown is derived by dividing the number of persons living in the same house by the total number of persons 5 years old and over.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Mobility: Moved, Same County: Persons who moved from the same county between 1995 and 2000 are those who responded 'No, different house in the United States' to the question 'Did this person live in this house or apartment five years ago (on April 1, 1995),' and responded to the question 'Where did this person live 5 years ago? Name of city, town, or post office:' with the same county as the current residence. Residence five years earlier is used in conjunction with location of current residence to determine the extent of residential mobility of the population.

Data were tabulated for persons 5 years old and over, and the percentage shown is derived by dividing the number of persons living in the same house by the total number of persons 5 years old and over.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Mortality: death

Mortality Rate: the number of deaths per year per 100,000 persons

Return to Top

N

NHIA: NAACCR Hispanic Identification Algorithm: Hispanic is not mutually exclusive from Whites, Blacks, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Incidence data for Hispanics are based on NAACCR Hispanic Identification Algorithm (NHIA). More information can be found at the SEER web site and the NAACCR web site (PDF)

National Cancer Institute: NCI. The National Cancer Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, is the Federal Government's principal agency for cancer research.

National Program of Cancer Registries: NPCR. Congress established The National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) in 1992 by enacting the Cancer Registries Amendment Act.

Non-English Language: Language isolation: A linguistically isolated household is one in which no member 14 years old and over (1) speaks only English or (2) speaks a non-English language and speaks English 'very well.' In other words, all members 14 years old and over have at least some difficulty with English. Data is shown as a percentage of households.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Return to Top

O

Brain & ONS: ONS stands for Other Nervous System. We combine brain and other nervous system together as one cancer site grouping - Brain and ONS. This includes two groupings: Brain and Cranial Nerves Other Nervous System.

Return to Top

P

Pap smear: The collection of cells from the cervix for examination under a microscope. It is used to detect changes that may be cancer or may lead to cancer, and can show noncancerous conditions, such as infection or inflammation. Also called a Pap test.

Population: Age 65 and Older: These data are derived from estimates of the resident population of all U.S counties and county equivalents by single years of age (age 0, 1, 2,....85 and over) for July 1 of the reference year, for years since 2000, or for April 1 for 2000.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Population: American Indian/Alaskan Native: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Population: Asian / Pacific Islander: Asian is defined as a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes "Asian Indian," "Chinese," "Filipino," "Korean," "Japanese," "Vietnamese," and "Other Asian." Pacific Islander is defined as a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicate their race as "Native Hawaiian," "Guamanian or Chamorro," "Samoan," and "Other Pacific Islander."

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Population: Black: A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "Black, African Am., or Negro," or provide written entries such as African American, Afro American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Population: Foreign Born: Foreign-born persons include all people who indicated they were either a U.S. citizen by naturalization or they were not a citizen of the United States. Persons born abroad of American parents or born in Puerto Rico or other U.S. Island Areas are not considered foreign born. The percentage shown is obtained by dividing the count of foreign-born persons by the total population.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Population: Hispanic: Hispanic data include all people who identify themselves as being of Hispanic origin. Hispanic ethnicity is considered independently of race, so Hispanic persons may be of any race. Incidence data for Hispanics are based on NAACCR Hispanic Identification Algorithm (NHIA). More information can be found at the SEER web site, the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site, and the NAACCR web site (PDF)

Population: Under 18: These data are derived from estimates of the resident population of all U.S counties and county equivalents by single years of age (age 0, 1, 2,....85 and over) for July 1 of the reference year, for years since 2000, or for April 1 for 2000.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Poverty: Families/Persons Below Poverty: Families and persons are classified as below poverty if their total family income or unrelated individual income was less than the poverty threshold specified for the applicable family size, age of householder, and number of related children under 18 present. The Census Bureau uses the federal government's official poverty definition.

If the total income of a person's family is less than the threshold appropriate for that family, then the person is considered poor, together with every member of his or her family. If a person is not living with anyone related by birth, marriage, or adoption, then the person's own income is compared with his or her poverty threshold.

The poverty thresholds are updated every year to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index. The poverty thresholds are the same for all parts of the country they are not adjusted for regional, state or local variations in the cost of living.

Poverty status is not determined for institutionalized people, people in military group quarters, people in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old. These groups were excluded from the numerator and denominator when calculating the percent of persons below poverty.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page,the poverty section of the Census Web site or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Poverty: Persons Below 150% of Poverty: Families and persons are classified as below poverty if their total family income or unrelated individual income was less than the poverty threshold specified for the applicable family size, age of householder, and number of related children under 18 present. The Census Bureau uses the federal government's official poverty definition.

If the total income of a person's family is less than the threshold appropriate for that family, then the person is considered poor, together with every member of his or her family. If a person is not living with anyone related by birth, marriage, or adoption, then the person's own income is compared with his or her poverty threshold. If their income is less than half their poverty threshold, they are below 50% of poverty; less than the threshold itself, they are in poverty (below 100% of poverty); less than 1.25 times the threshold, below 125% of poverty, and so on. The greater the ratio of income to poverty, the more people fall under the category, because higher ratios include more people with higher incomes.

The poverty thresholds are updated every year to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index. The poverty thresholds are the same for all parts of the country they are not adjusted for regional, state or local variations in the cost of living.

Poverty status is not determined for institutionalized people, people in military group quarters, people in college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old. These groups were excluded from the numerator and denominator when calculating the percent of persons below poverty.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page,the poverty section of the Census Web site or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Prevalence: The number of new and pre-existing cases alive on a certain date

Return to Top

R

Rate: cases or deaths per 100,000 persons

Return to Top

S

SEER: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results is a collection of population-based cancer registries in the United States which collect and submit cancer incidence and follow up data to the National Cancer Institute. The National Cancer Act of 1971 mandated the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer leading to the establishment of the SEER Program.

SEER 12: The reporting areas included as "SEER 12" are the SEER 9 areas plus Los Angeles, San Jose-Monterey, and the Alaska Native Registry with data available since 1992.

SEER 9: The reporting areas included as "SEER 9" are the States of Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, and Utah and four metropolitan areas -- Detroit, Michigan, Atlanta, Georgia, San Francisco-Oakland, California, and Seattle-Puget Sound, Washington. Data from these areas are used to calculate long-term incidence trends and survival.

SEER Registries: geographic areas were selected for inclusion in the SEER Program based on their ability to operate and maintain a high quality population-based cancer reporting system and for their epidemiologically significant population subgroups

SEER*Stat: software used with the SEER public-use file over the Internet or as a PC desktop system for production of a myriad of cancer statistics, such as incidence rates and survival rates, for various demographic and medical input variables.

Sigmoidoscopy: inspection of the lower colon using a thin, lighted tube called a sigmoidoscope. Samples of tissue or cells may be collected for examination under a microscope. Also called proctosigmoidoscopy.

Survival: the proportion of patients alive at some point subsequent to the diagnosis of their cancer

Return to Top

T

Trend: change in rate over time expressed as an annual percent change

Return to Top

U

US (SEER+NPCR): Data are from selected statewide and metropolitan area cancer registries that meet the data quality criteria for all invasive cancer sites combined. See registry-specific data quality information. Rates cover approximately 96% of the U.S. population.

United States: depending on the data source, the US can be either the total US or a subsection of the US based upon the SEER Registries

United States (SEER): a subsection of the US based upon the SEER Registries. SEER 9 represents approximately 10% of the US population and SEER 12 represents approximately 12% of the US population.

United States (SEER+NPCR): Data are from selected statewide and metropolitan area cancer registries that meet the data quality criteria for all invasive cancer sites combined. See registry-specific data quality information. Rates cover approximately 96% of the U.S. population.

Urban/Rural: Continuum Code: Rural-Urban Continuum Codes were developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Rural-Urban Continuum Codes form a classification scheme that distinguishes metropolitan (metro) counties by the population size of their metro area, and nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) counties by degree of urbanization and adjacency to a metro area or areas. For more information about using Rural-Urban Continuum Codes, go to Rural-Urban Continuum Codes in SEER*Stat.

Urban/Rural: Urban Percent: All territory, population and housing units in urbanized areas and in places of more than 2,500 persons outside of urbanized areas. 'Urban' classification cuts across other hierarchies and can be in metropolitan or non-metropolitan areas.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Return to Top

W

Workforce: Unemployed: All civilians 16 years old and over are classified as unemployed if they (1) were neither 'at work' nor 'with a job but not at work' during the reference week, and (2) were actively looking for work during the last 4 weeks, and (3) were available to accept a job. Also included as unemployed are civilians who did not work at all during the reference week, were waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off, and were available for work except for temporary illness.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.

Workforce: White Collar: Percent White Collar is calculated as a percentage of the employed civilian population 16 years and over, and includes those employed in management, professional and related occupations, fire fighting, prevention and law enforcement workers, including supervisors.

For more detailed information on this topic, please see the SEER County Attributes web page or the American Fact Finder section of the Census web site.