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Interpretation of Incidence Rates Data

Incidence Rate Report for Wisconsin by County

All Races (includes Hispanic), Both Sexes, All Cancer Sites, All Ages
Sorted by Rate

Explanation of Column Headers

Incidence Rate (95% Confidence Interval) - The incidence rate is based upon 100,000 people and is an annual rate (or average annual rate) based on the time period indicated. Rates are age-adjusted by 5-year age groups to the 2000 U.S. standard million population.

Other Notes

  • Larger confidence intervals indicate less stability of the data. This is often due to low counts that are not quite low enough to be suppressed.
  • Data is currently being suppressed if there are fewer than 16 counts for the time period.


    Line by Line Interpretation of the Report


    Wisconsin6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 462.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 459.7 to 464.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 29,201.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1.2
    US (SEER+NPCR)1,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 459.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 459.4 to 460.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 1,514,446 §.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1.8
    Vilas County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 554.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 518.9 to 592.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 209.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 4.9
    Oneida County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 522.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 495.3 to 551.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 296.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.1
    Menominee County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 513.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 414.2 to 628.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 20.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 2
    Lincoln County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 512.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 480.5 to 546.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 200.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1.8
    Forest County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 500.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 447.5 to 557.8.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 69.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 6.1
    Sawyer County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 499.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 459.1 to 543.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 124.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.7
    Sheboygan County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 498.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 481.2 to 515.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 672.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.6
    Milwaukee County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 492.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 486.4 to 499.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 4,562.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1.1
    Ozaukee County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 492.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 473.6 to 512.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 521.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1.4
    Racine County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 491.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 478.4 to 505.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 1,049.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.3
    Crawford County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 491.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 451.1 to 534.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 115.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -3.6
    Winnebago County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 488.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 474.3 to 503.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 886.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.3
    Walworth County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 486.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 468.0 to 505.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 543.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1.2
    Oconto County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 485.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 457.7 to 515.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 231.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.7
    Chippewa County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 485.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 463.0 to 509.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 352.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.5
    Marathon County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 483.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 467.8 to 499.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 734.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -3.4
    Fond du Lac County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 483.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 465.7 to 501.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 577.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -3
    La Crosse County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 480.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 462.9 to 498.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 587.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1
    Waukesha County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 479.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 470.6 to 488.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 2,192.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.5
    Marquette County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 478.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 437.5 to 522.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 110.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -3.1
    Washington County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 477.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 461.6 to 493.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 703.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1
    Brown County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 477.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 464.7 to 489.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 1,179.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.7
    Kenosha County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 476.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 461.5 to 492.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 776.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.8
    Marinette County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 471.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 446.3 to 498.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 279.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.4
    Jackson County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 470.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 433.3 to 511.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 119.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.6
    Clark County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 470.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 440.1 to 501.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 191.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0
    Columbia County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 470.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 446.8 to 494.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 315.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1.7
    Adams County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 468.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 435.2 to 504.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 161.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.3
    Calumet County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 468.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 440.9 to 496.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 228.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4.5
    Waupaca County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 466.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 443.6 to 490.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 327.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4.2
    Outagamie County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 464.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 450.2 to 479.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 825.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 2.2
    Rusk County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 462.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 420.8 to 508.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 97.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 10
    Trempealeau County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 462.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 430.6 to 496.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 163.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.3
    Rock County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 462.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 447.8 to 476.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 813.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2
    Door County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 460.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 431.4 to 491.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 208.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -3
    Monroe County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 460.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 434.1 to 488.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 235.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 2
    Jefferson County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 459.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 439.9 to 480.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 417.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.7
    Washburn County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 457.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 418.6 to 500.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 110.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 4.1
    Manitowoc County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 454.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 436.5 to 474.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 480.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.1
    Juneau County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 454.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 422.9 to 487.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 161.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4.9
    Green Lake County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 453.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 417.4 to 492.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 122.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.6
    Iron County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 452.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 393.4 to 519.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 48.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 6
    Waushara County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 446.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 415.8 to 480.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 162.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4.1
    Grant County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 445.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 421.2 to 470.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 265.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.4
    Wood County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 443.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 424.9 to 463.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 426.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 3.5
    Langlade County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 443.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 409.5 to 480.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 130.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1.2
    Shawano County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 440.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 415.6 to 466.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 245.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1.2
    Dodge County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 440.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 421.9 to 458.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 457.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.5
    Dane County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 432.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 424.0 to 441.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 1,965.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.8
    Eau Claire County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 430.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 412.0 to 449.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 432.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 3.5
    Sauk County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 428.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 407.1 to 450.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 316.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.7
    Ashland County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 427.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 386.2 to 471.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 84.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.5
    Taylor County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 427.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 391.1 to 465.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 109.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.9
    Kewaunee County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 425.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 390.3 to 463.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 112.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 3.2
    Portage County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 421.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 400.6 to 443.8.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 308.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4
    Vernon County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 420.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 391.3 to 451.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 160.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4.9
    Price County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 418.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 379.8 to 460.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 93.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.3
    Lafayette County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 415.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 376.3 to 458.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 84.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -9.5
    Barron County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 414.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 391.6 to 438.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 253.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.8
    Iowa County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 411.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 378.1 to 447.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 114.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4.3
    Burnett County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 408.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 372.5 to 448.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 104.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.9
    Green County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 397.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 371.3 to 425.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 175.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -5.9
    Dunn County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 388.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 362.7 to 416.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 170.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.3
    Richland County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 388.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 353.5 to 426.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 96.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 2.8
    Bayfield County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 369.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 332.3 to 409.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 84.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -6.9
    Douglas County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 359.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 336.8 to 384.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 186.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.9
    Buffalo County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 358.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 319.9 to 401.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 65.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 2.1
    Pepin County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 358.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 307.1 to 417.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 36.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0
    Polk County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 329.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 308.6 to 352.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 183.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.6
    Florence County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 324.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 266.5 to 393.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 23.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -18.5
    St. Croix County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 318.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 299.9 to 337.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 242.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.4
    Pierce County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 241.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 219.1 to 265.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 91.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : rising rising trend
    • Recent AAPC : 9.6


    Notes:
    Created by statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov on 10/22/2014 8:41 pm.
    Data for the United States does not include data from Nevada.
    State Cancer Registries may provide more current or more local data.
    † Incidence rates (cases per 100,000 population per year) are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population (19 age groups: <1, 1-4, 5-9, ... , 80-84, 85+). Rates are for invasive cancer only (except for bladder cancer which is invasive and in situ) or unless otherwise specified. Rates calculated using SEER*Stat. Population counts for denominators are based on Census populations as modified by NCI. The 1969-2012 US Population Data File is used for SEER and NPCR incidence rates.
    § The total count for the US (SEER+NPCR) may differ from the summation of the individual states reported in this table. The total uses data from the CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries Cancer Surveillance System (NPCR-CSS) January 2013 data submission for the following states: California, Kentucky, Louisiana, and New Jersey but data for those states when shown individually are sourced from the SEER November 2013 submission.

    1 Source: CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries Cancer Surveillance System (NPCR-CSS) January 2014 data submission and SEER November 2013 submission.
    6 Source: State Cancer Registry and the CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries Cancer Surveillance System (NPCR-CSS) January 2014 data submission. State rates include rates from metropolitan areas funded by SEER.
    10 Source: Incidence data provided by the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). EAPCs calculated by the National Cancer Institute using SEER*Stat. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population (19 age groups: <1, 1-4, 5-9, ... , 80-84,85+). Rates are for invasive cancer only (except for bladder cancer which is invasive and in situ) or unless otherwise specified. Population counts for denominators are based on Census populations as modified by NCI. The 1969-2012 US Population Data File is used with NPCR January 2014 data.

    Please note that the data comes from different sources. Due to different years of data availablility, most of the trends are AAPCs based on APCs but some are EAPCs calculated in SEER*Stat. Please refer to the source for each graph for additional information.

    Interpret Rankings provides insight into interpreting cancer incidence statistics. When the population size for a denominator is small, the rates may be unstable. A rate is unstable when a small change in the numerator (e.g., only one or two additional cases) has a dramatic effect on the calculated rate.

    Suppression is used to avoid misinterpretation when rates are unstable.