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Interpretation of Incidence Rates Data

Incidence Rate Report for Wisconsin by County

All Races (includes Hispanic), Both Sexes, Lung & Bronchus, All Ages
Sorted by Rate

Explanation of Column Headers

Incidence Rate (95% Confidence Interval) - The incidence rate is based upon 100,000 people and is an annual rate (or average annual rate) based on the time period indicated. Rates are age-adjusted by 5-year age groups to the 2000 U.S. standard million population.

Other Notes

  • Larger confidence intervals indicate less stability of the data. This is often due to low counts that are not quite low enough to be suppressed.
  • Data is currently being suppressed if there are fewer than 16 counts for the time period.


    Line by Line Interpretation of the Report


    Wisconsin6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 62.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 61.3 to 63.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 3,922.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1.1
    US (SEER+NPCR)1,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 64.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 64.7 to 65.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 212,768 §.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.7
    Adams County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 88.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 74.7 to 104.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 32.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1.4
    Menominee County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 83.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 50.4 to 133.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 4.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -16.5
    Forest County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 83.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 63.5 to 108.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 12.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 26.3
    Iron County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 77.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 56.4 to 107.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 9.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -6.3
    Marquette County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 77.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 62.4 to 95.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 19.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4.8
    Kenosha County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 76.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 70.7 to 83.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 121.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1
    Oneida County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 75.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 65.6 to 86.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 45.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 4.4
    Waushara County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 75.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 63.1 to 88.8.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 29.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -3.4
    Juneau County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 74.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 62.2 to 88.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 27.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -14.4
    Oconto County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 74.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 63.7 to 86.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 36.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1
    Rock County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 73.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 68.0 to 79.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 130.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1.3
    Milwaukee County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 72.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 70.3 to 75.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 661.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -1.8
    Crawford County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 72.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 57.8 to 89.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 18.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -5.3
    Sawyer County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 72.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 57.9 to 89.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 19.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.4
    Burnett County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 71.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 57.3 to 89.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 18.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 5
    Columbia County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 71.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 62.2 to 80.8.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 48.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -3.7
    Racine County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 70.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 65.6 to 76.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 148.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.2
    Langlade County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 70.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 57.5 to 85.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 22.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -5.5
    Ashland County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 70.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 54.9 to 88.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 15.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 5.9
    Winnebago County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 69.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 64.2 to 75.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 126.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4.9
    Waupaca County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 69.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 61.1 to 78.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 50.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 2.7
    Florence County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 69.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 43.4 to 107.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 5.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -9.4
    Jackson County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 68.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 54.8 to 84.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 18.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 4.7
    Chippewa County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 67.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 59.5 to 77.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 49.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 3.2
    Monroe County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 67.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 57.5 to 78.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 35.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.3
    Rusk County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 66.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 52.8 to 84.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 16.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : rising rising trend
    • Recent AAPC : 5.3
    Vilas County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 66.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 56.0 to 79.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 28.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.3
    Marinette County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 65.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 57.0 to 76.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 41.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 4.8
    Walworth County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 65.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 58.6 to 72.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 72.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.4
    Price County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 64.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 50.6 to 83.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 15.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.5
    Barron County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 64.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 55.8 to 74.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 41.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -8.4
    Washburn County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 63.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 50.4 to 80.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 17.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 7.6
    Douglas County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 60.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 51.6 to 71.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 32.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 5.7
    Grant County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 60.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 52.0 to 69.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 37.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -6.7
    Clark County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 60.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 50.1 to 72.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 25.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -2.3
    Lincoln County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 59.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 49.5 to 71.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 24.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 9.2
    Sheboygan County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 59.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 53.8 to 65.8.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 80.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 6.4
    Fond du Lac County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 59.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 53.4 to 66.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 71.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1.4
    Brown County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 59.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 54.8 to 63.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 143.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1.3
    La Crosse County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 59.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 53.0 to 65.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 72.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.9
    Buffalo County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 58.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 43.7 to 76.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 11.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 8.7
    Sauk County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 58.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 50.6 to 66.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 43.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 3.5
    Calumet County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 57.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 48.4 to 68.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 27.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 2.1
    Portage County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 57.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 50.1 to 66.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 42.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -6.9
    Vernon County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 57.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.6 to 69.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 23.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -6.6
    Washington County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 57.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 52.1 to 63.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 84.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -9.2
    Marathon County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 57.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 51.7 to 62.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 86.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -6.1
    Shawano County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 56.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.9 to 65.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 33.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.7
    Waukesha County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 56.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 53.2 to 59.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 257.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -3
    Dodge County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 56.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 49.9 to 63.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 59.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -3.3
    Outagamie County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 56.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 51.1 to 61.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 97.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 4
    Wood County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 55.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 49.3 to 63.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 54.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.9
    Jefferson County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 55.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 48.7 to 63.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 49.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1.8
    Green Lake County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 55.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 43.8 to 69.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 16.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.4
    Manitowoc County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 53.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.7 to 60.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 58.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.2
    Eau Claire County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 53.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 46.8 to 60.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 52.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 9.1
    Dane County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 52.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 49.7 to 56.1.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 225.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -4.7
    Iowa County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 52.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 41.4 to 66.7.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 15.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -0.7
    Door County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 52.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 43.3 to 62.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 25.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 1.4
    Ozaukee County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 51.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 45.0 to 57.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 54.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 2.9
    Dunn County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 50.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 41.7 to 61.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 22.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -11
    Polk County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 50.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 42.7 to 60.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 29.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -5.4
    Taylor County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 50.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 39.2 to 64.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 13.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : falling falling trend
    • Recent AAPC : -10.7
    Green County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 50.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 41.6 to 61.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 22.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 5.1
    Bayfield County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 50.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 38.4 to 66.2.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 12.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : -15.2
    Richland County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 50.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 38.3 to 64.5.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 13.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 6.7
    Kewaunee County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 48.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 37.6 to 62.3.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 13.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 5
    Trempealeau County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 47.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 37.9 to 59.0.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 17.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : rising rising trend
    • Recent AAPC : 12
    Lafayette County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 45.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 33.9 to 60.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 10.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 6
    St. Croix County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 38.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 32.6 to 45.9.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 29.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 0.7
    Pepin County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 37.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 22.8 to 59.4.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 4.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 10.4
    Pierce County6,10
    • Rate : The incidence rate is 32.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 24.9 to 42.6.
    • Average Annual Count : The count is 12.
    • Rate Period : The period for the rate is 2007-2011.
    • Recent Trend : stable stable trend
    • Recent AAPC : 8.9


    Notes:
    Created by statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov on 10/21/2014 11:09 am.
    Data for the United States does not include data from Nevada.
    State Cancer Registries may provide more current or more local data.
    † Incidence rates (cases per 100,000 population per year) are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population (19 age groups: <1, 1-4, 5-9, ... , 80-84, 85+). Rates are for invasive cancer only (except for bladder cancer which is invasive and in situ) or unless otherwise specified. Rates calculated using SEER*Stat. Population counts for denominators are based on Census populations as modified by NCI. The 1969-2012 US Population Data File is used for SEER and NPCR incidence rates.
    § The total count for the US (SEER+NPCR) may differ from the summation of the individual states reported in this table. The total uses data from the CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries Cancer Surveillance System (NPCR-CSS) January 2013 data submission for the following states: California, Kentucky, Louisiana, and New Jersey but data for those states when shown individually are sourced from the SEER November 2013 submission.

    1 Source: CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries Cancer Surveillance System (NPCR-CSS) January 2014 data submission and SEER November 2013 submission.
    6 Source: State Cancer Registry and the CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries Cancer Surveillance System (NPCR-CSS) January 2014 data submission. State rates include rates from metropolitan areas funded by SEER.
    10 Source: Incidence data provided by the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). EAPCs calculated by the National Cancer Institute using SEER*Stat. Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population (19 age groups: <1, 1-4, 5-9, ... , 80-84,85+). Rates are for invasive cancer only (except for bladder cancer which is invasive and in situ) or unless otherwise specified. Population counts for denominators are based on Census populations as modified by NCI. The 1969-2012 US Population Data File is used with NPCR January 2014 data.

    Please note that the data comes from different sources. Due to different years of data availablility, most of the trends are AAPCs based on APCs but some are EAPCs calculated in SEER*Stat. Please refer to the source for each graph for additional information.

    Interpret Rankings provides insight into interpreting cancer incidence statistics. When the population size for a denominator is small, the rates may be unstable. A rate is unstable when a small change in the numerator (e.g., only one or two additional cases) has a dramatic effect on the calculated rate.

    Suppression is used to avoid misinterpretation when rates are unstable.