Mortality > Table > Interpret

## Interpretation of Death Rates Data

### Death Rate Report for Louisiana by ParishLung & Bronchus, 2011-2015All Races (includes Hispanic), Both Sexes, All AgesSorted by Rate

Explanation of Column Headers

Objective - The objective of 45.5 is from the Healthy People 2020 project done by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Death Rate (95% Confidence Interval) - The death rate is based upon 100,000 people and is for 5 year(s). Rates are age-adjusted by 5-year age groups to the 2000 U.S. standard million population (the Healthy People 2020 goals are based on rates adjusted using different methods but the differences should be minimal).

Recent Trends - This is an interpretation of the AAPC:

• Rising when 95% confidence interval of average annual percent change is above 0.
• Stable when 95% confidence interval of average annual percent change includes 0.
• Falling when 95% confidence interval of average annual percent change is below 0.

AAPC (95% Confidence Interval) - The Average Annual Percent Change is the change in rate over time. These AAPCs are based upon APCs that were calculated by Joinpoint Regression Program

Other Notes

• Larger confidence intervals indicate less stability of the data. This is often due to low counts that are not quite low enough to be suppressed.
• Data is currently being suppressed if there are fewer than 16 counts for the time period.

• Line by Line Interpretation of the Report

#### Louisiana

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 53.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 52.7 to 54.6 and 2,701 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is because the trend is -2.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.7 to -1.9.

#### United States

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : Yes
• Rate : The death rate is 43.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 43.3 to 43.5 and 155,959 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is because the trend is -3.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.6 to -2.6.

#### East Carroll Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 79.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 54.2 to 111.7 and 7 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.0 to 1.9.

#### Catahoula Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 73.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 53.7 to 99.5 and 9 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is 0.8 with a 95% confidence interval from -0.9 to 2.4.

#### Jefferson Davis Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 72.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 60.7 to 85.7 and 28 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.1 to 0.9.

#### Caldwell Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 71.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 52.3 to 96.9 and 9 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.2 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.7 to 1.2.

#### St. Bernard Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 71.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 58.7 to 85.1 and 25 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.4 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.3 to 0.5.

#### Vernon Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 70.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 59.4 to 82.6 and 30 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -2.5 with a 95% confidence interval from -6.0 to 1.1.

#### Evangeline Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 69.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 57.9 to 82.8 and 26 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.7 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.8 to 0.4.

#### Iberville Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 69.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 57.8 to 82.8 and 26 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is 0.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.2 to 1.5.

#### Grant Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 66.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 52.4 to 82.7 and 16 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.8 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.5 to 0.9.

#### West Carroll Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 66.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 49.0 to 87.7 and 10 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is 0.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.4 to 1.6.

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 65.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 57.2 to 75.0 and 45 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.7 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.6 to 0.1.

#### Jackson Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 64.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 50.5 to 82.0 and 14 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is 0.7 with a 95% confidence interval from -0.8 to 2.3.

#### Winn Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 64.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 49.1 to 83.9 and 12 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.5 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.0 to 1.0.

#### Washington Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 64.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 55.6 to 74.6 and 38 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.6 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.6 to 0.5.

#### La Salle Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 63.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 48.0 to 82.0 and 12 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.5 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.2 to 1.2.

#### St. Landry Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 62.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 55.4 to 69.9 and 60 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.6 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.4 to 0.3.

#### Iberia Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 62.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 54.6 to 70.6 and 50 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.2 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.0 to -0.4.

#### Bienville Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 62.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.5 to 80.2 and 13 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is 0.2 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.2 to 1.7.

#### West Feliciana Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 61.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 45.6 to 82.0 and 11 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -2.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -4.2 to 0.0.

#### Livingston Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 61.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 55.5 to 68.3 and 78 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.4 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.1 to -0.7.

#### Concordia Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 61.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.9 to 77.1 and 15 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.7 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.0 to 0.6.

#### Union Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 61.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 49.3 to 75.2 and 19 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -1.2 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.9 to 0.5.

#### East Feliciana Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 60.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.0 to 76.4 and 15 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.9 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.4 to 0.6.

#### Ouachita Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 60.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 55.0 to 65.8 and 100 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -0.8 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.3 to -0.3.

#### St. Martin Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 60.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 51.1 to 70.2 and 34 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.4 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.3 to -0.4.

#### Beauregard Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 59.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 48.8 to 70.9 and 24 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.6 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.4 to 0.3.

#### Assumption Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 58.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 46.1 to 73.3 and 16 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -1.2 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.4 to 0.1.

#### St. Helena Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 58.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 41.8 to 79.7 and 9 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -2.4 with a 95% confidence interval from -4.3 to -0.4.

#### Morehouse Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 58.2 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.2 to 71.1 and 20 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.7 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.9 to 0.5.

#### Avoyelles Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 57.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 48.8 to 68.2 and 29 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -6.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -11.7 to -0.4.

#### St. Charles Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 57.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 48.1 to 67.7 and 29 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.6 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.5 to 0.2.

#### Webster Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 57.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 48.6 to 67.3 and 32 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.8 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.9 to 0.2.

#### Terrebonne Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 57.1 with a 95% confidence interval from 51.0 to 63.8 and 66 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.9 to -0.6.

#### Tangipahoa Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 57.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 51.2 to 63.3 and 75 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.8 to -0.5.

#### Vermilion Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 55.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.7 to 64.4 and 37 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -1.9 to -0.2.

#### St. Mary Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 55.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.3 to 64.4 and 34 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -2.5 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.5 to -1.4.

#### Ascension Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 55.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 48.5 to 62.8 and 52 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -5.4 with a 95% confidence interval from -10.0 to -0.6.

#### Calcasieu Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 54.6 with a 95% confidence interval from 50.2 to 59.3 and 118 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.5 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.1 to -1.0.

#### Allen Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 54.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 42.5 to 68.4 and 15 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -1.5 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.2 to 0.3.

#### West Baton Rouge Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 53.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 41.4 to 68.7 and 13 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -1.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.6 to 0.1.

#### Claiborne Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 53.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 40.8 to 69.9 and 12 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.4 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.1 to 1.3.

#### De Soto Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 53.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 43.2 to 66.1 and 19 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.2 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.3 to -0.1.

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 53.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 49.7 to 57.3 and 159 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -2.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.1 to -1.1.

#### Red River Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 53.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 35.5 to 77.4 and 6 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is 0.4 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.1 to 3.0.

#### Plaquemines Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 52.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 40.2 to 67.9 and 12 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -1.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.1 to 0.5.

#### LaFourche Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 52.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 46.5 to 59.1 and 56 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.3 to -0.4.

#### Lafayette Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 52.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 48.0 to 57.0 and 112 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -2.0 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.5 to -1.4.

#### Sabine Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 52.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 41.8 to 65.0 and 18 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.4 to -0.1.

#### Richland Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 51.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 40.0 to 66.4 and 13 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.8 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.4 to -0.1.

#### Rapides Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 51.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 46.5 to 56.9 and 80 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.2 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.0 to -0.5.

#### Bossier Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 51.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 45.9 to 57.3 and 65 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.6 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.4 to -0.9.

#### Natchitoches Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 50.8 with a 95% confidence interval from 41.9 to 61.1 and 23 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.4 to -0.1.

#### Jefferson Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 50.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 47.3 to 52.9 and 259 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -2.8 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.7 to -2.0.

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 49.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 32.9 to 70.2 and 6 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.9 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.6 to -0.1.

#### St. Tammany Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 48.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 44.7 to 52.3 and 136 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -2.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.8 to -1.8.

#### Orleans Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 47.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 44.6 to 51.1 and 180 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -2.0 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.5 to -1.5.

#### Lincoln Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 46.5 with a 95% confidence interval from 37.9 to 56.4 and 21 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.5 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.8 to -0.3.

#### St. John the Baptist Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : No
• Rate : The death rate is 46.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 37.5 to 56.5 and 21 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -2.1 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.5 to -0.7.

#### St. James Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : Yes
• Rate : The death rate is 45.4 with a 95% confidence interval from 34.5 to 58.9 and 12 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -1.3 with a 95% confidence interval from -3.0 to 0.5.

#### Pointe Coupee Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : Yes
• Rate : The death rate is 42.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 32.9 to 54.9 and 13 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -0.6 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.5 to 1.3.

#### East Baton Rouge Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : Yes
• Rate : The death rate is 42.7 with a 95% confidence interval from 39.9 to 45.5 and 189 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is falling because the trend is -1.9 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.4 to -1.3.

#### Franklin Parish

• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : Yes
• Rate : The death rate is 40.3 with a 95% confidence interval from 30.3 to 52.8 and 11 average annual deaths over 2011-2015.
• Recent Trend : The trend is stable because the trend is -1.4 with a 95% confidence interval from -2.7 to 0.0.
Cameron Parish
• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : ***
• Rate : * Data has been suppressed to ensure confidentiality and stability of rate estimates. Counts are suppressed if fewer than 16 records were reported in a specific area-sex-race category. If an average count of 3 is shown, the total number of cases for the time period is 16 or more which exceeds suppression threshold (but is rounded to 3).
• Recent Trend : * Data has been suppressed to ensure confidentiality and stability of rate estimates. Counts are suppressed if fewer than 16 records were reported in a specific area-sex-race category. If an average count of 3 is shown, the total number of cases for the time period is 16 or more which exceeds suppression threshold (but is rounded to 3).
Tensas Parish
• Met Healthy People Objective of 45.5? : ***
• Rate : * Data has been suppressed to ensure confidentiality and stability of rate estimates. Counts are suppressed if fewer than 16 records were reported in a specific area-sex-race category. If an average count of 3 is shown, the total number of cases for the time period is 16 or more which exceeds suppression threshold (but is rounded to 3).
• Recent Trend : * Data has been suppressed to ensure confidentiality and stability of rate estimates. Counts are suppressed if fewer than 16 records were reported in a specific area-sex-race category. If an average count of 3 is shown, the total number of cases for the time period is 16 or more which exceeds suppression threshold (but is rounded to 3).

Notes:
Created by statecancerprofiles.cancer.gov on 06/16/2019 9:29 pm.

State Cancer Registries may provide more current or more local data.
Trend
Rising when 95% confidence interval of average annual percent change is above 0.
Stable when 95% confidence interval of average annual percent change includes 0.
Falling when 95% confidence interval of average annual percent change is below 0.

† Death rates (cases per 100,000 population per year) are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population (19 age groups: <1, 1-4, 5-9, ... , 80-84, 85+). Rates calculated using SEER*Stat. Population counts for denominators are based on Census populations as modified by NCI. The 1969-2015 US Population Data File is used for mortality data.
The Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) is based on the APCs calculated by Joinpoint. Due to data availability issues, the time period used in the calculation of the joinpoint regression model may differ for selected counties.

Healthy People 2020 Objectives provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

* Data has been suppressed to ensure confidentiality and stability of rate estimates. Counts are suppressed if fewer than 16 records were reported in a specific area-sex-race category. If an average count of 3 is shown, the total number of cases for the time period is 16 or more which exceeds suppression threshold (but is rounded to 3).

Please note that the data comes from different sources. Due to different years of data availablility, most of the trends are AAPCs based on APCs but some are APCs calculated in SEER*Stat. Please refer to the source for each graph for additional information.

Interpret Rankings provides insight into interpreting cancer incidence statistics. When the population size for a denominator is small, the rates may be unstable. A rate is unstable when a small change in the numerator (e.g., only one or two additional cases) has a dramatic effect on the calculated rate.

Data for United States does not include Puerto Rico.